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Scientific Research Papers

White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) Scavenging on Whales and Its Potential Role in Further Shaping the Ecology of an Apex Predator
Comparisons between White Shark - Pinniped Interactions at Seal Island (South Africa) with Other Sites in California
Investigatory Behavior toward Surface Objects and Nonconsumptive Strikes on Seabirds by White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, at Seal Island, South Africa
Ecological risk assessment and its application to elasmobranch conservation and management
Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in Shark Fins
Marine predator-prey contests: Ambush and speed
versus vigilance and agility
Natural mortality of puffadder shysharks due to Cape
fur seals and black-backed kelp gulls at Seal Island,
South Africa
Killing for conservation: the need for alternatives
to lethal sampling of apex predatory sharks
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Global Shark Currency: The Distribution, Frequency and Economic Value of Shark Eco-tourism.
Current Issues in Tourism, 1–16.

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Austin J. Gallagher & Neil Hammerschlag 2011.


Effects of environmental conditions on predator–prey interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at Seal Island, South Africa

Environ. Biol. Fish. 76, 341-350.

Abstract Effects of environmental factors on frequency and success rate of 2,546 natural predatory attacks by white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias , on Cape fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, were studied over an 8-year period at Seal Island, South Africa. Attacks occurred primarily during winter months (June–August). Attack frequency increased significantly during northerly winds, during high tides, and within 400 m of the island, but predatory success rate decreased with proximity to the island.

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shark research

Hammerschlag, N. and Fallows, C.

Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at the Bassas da India atoll:
first record from the Mozambique Channel and
possible significance as a nursery area.

South African Journal of Science, 101: 375-377.35-41 July/August 2005.

This paper reports the first record of Carcharhinus galapagensis in the Mozambique Channel from 54 individual sightings and describes their association with the oceanic atoll, Bassas da India. The geographic distribution of C. galapagensis is updated and the importance of the atoll to this species as a nursery area within the Mozambique Channel is discussed.

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Martin, R.A., N. Hammerschlag, R.S. Collier, and C. Fallows.

predatory behaviour

Predatory behaviour of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)
at Seal Island, South Africa.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85: 1121-1135, 2005.

Between 1997 and 2003, there were 2088 natural predations by white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) on Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) and 121 strikes on towed seal-shaped decoys were documented from observation vessels at Seal Island, South Africa. White sharks at Seal Island appear to selectively target lone, incoming young of the year Cape fur seals at or near the surface. Most attacks lasted 51min and consisted of a single breach, with predatory success rate decreasing rapidly with increasing duration and number of subsequent breaches. A white shark predatory ethogram, composed of four phases and 20 behavioural units, is presented, including four varieties of initial strike and 11 subsequent behaviour units not previously de¢ned in the literature.

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Martin, R.A. 2004

Martin, R.A. 2004.

Natural mortality of the puffadder shyshark (Haploblepharus edwardsii)
due to two species of marine tetrapod,
the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) and
black-backed kelp gull (Larus dominicanus vetula)
at Seal Island, False Bay, South Africa.

Journal of Fish Biology, 64: 1-6, 2004.

Natural mortality in the puffadder shyshark due to object play or kleptoparasitism by two species of marine tetrapod, the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the black-backed kelp gull Larus dominicanis vetula, was investigated in the present study. Range extension of the puffadder shyshark to False Bay, South Africa was also examined.

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research paper